Why ionizing radiations are harmful?

When ionizing radiation interacts with cells, it can cause damage to cells and genetic material (that is, if not properly repaired, this damage can result in cell death or potentially harmful changes in DNA (that is, a known example of ionizing radiation is that of X-rays, which can penetrate our body and we develop images of our bones. We say that X-rays are “ionizing”, which means that they have the unique ability to remove electrons from atoms and molecules in the matter they pass through. Ionizing activity can alter molecules within our body's cells. This action can cause eventual damage (such as cancer).

Intense exposures to ionizing radiation can cause damage to skin or tissue. Ionizing radiation has so much energy that it can expel electrons from atoms, a process known as ionization. Ionizing radiation can affect atoms in living things, posing a health risk by damaging the tissue and DNA of genes. Ionizing radiation comes from X-ray machines, cosmic particles from outer space, and radioactive elements.

Radioactive elements emit ionizing radiation as their atoms undergo radioactive decay. Because different tissues react differently to ionizing radiation, the effective dose, which is the total amount of ionizing radiation received that can cause biological damage, is more important. The ionizing radiation that is emitted may include alpha particles alpha particles A form of particulate ionizing radiation composed of two neutrons and two protons. In contrast to the adaptive protection seen at low doses of sparsely ionizing radiation, there is evidence that even a single nuclear path along a path of densely ionizing particles can trigger harmful effects that extend beyond the traversed cell and induce damaging effects on neighboring cells.

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