An ionization chamber is a radiation detector used to measure the intensity of a radiation beam or to count individual charged particles. It consists of two charged electrodes that collect ions formed within their respective electric fields. This device can measure dose or dose rate because it provides an indirect representation of the energy deposited in the chamber. It is also known as an ion chamber and detects various types of ionizing radiation.The detector voltage is adjusted so that the conditions correspond to the ionization region, and the voltage is insufficient to cause gas amplification (secondary ionization).
Detectors in the ionization region operate at a low electric field strength, so gas multiplication does not occur. The collected load (output signal) is independent of the applied voltage. Individual minimum ionization particles tend to be quite small and generally require special low-noise amplifiers for efficient operating performance.Ionization chambers are preferred for high radiation dose rates because they have no “dead time”, a phenomenon that affects the accuracy of the Geiger-Mueller tube at high dose rates. This is because there is no inherent signal amplification in the operating medium; therefore, these meters do not require much time to recover from large currents.
In addition, because there is no amplification, they provide excellent energy resolution, which is mainly limited by electronic noise.Pressurized well type cylindrical ionization chambers are widely used for the determination of the activity of radioactive samples. They are used as secondary measuring instruments, in particular for transferring standards and, thanks to their stability over time, periodically check the consistency of the measurement results of the primary activity over several years. The fields of application of these instruments are varied; they are used in research, industry and nuclear medicine services. Their excellent stability over time, ease of implementation and excellent linearity according to activity levels are the main advantages of these standard radioactivity and transfer measurement instruments.A well type ionization chamber is composed of a cylinder containing the gas (nitrogen, argon or gas mixture) under a given pressure and electrodes that will be used to collect electrical charges.
The unit is connected to an electrometer that will supply high voltage to the camera, acquire the current signal given by the camera and transmit it to the acquisition program. A diagram of the configuration is shown below. The alpha particle causes ionization inside the chamber, and the ejected electrons cause additional secondary ionizations.In medical physics and radiation therapy, ionization chambers are used to ensure that the dose delivered from a therapy unit or radiopharmaceutical is as intended. They are also widely used in the nuclear industry as they provide an output that is proportional to the radiation dose.
They find wide use in situations where a constant high dose rate is measured, as they have a longer useful life than standard Geiger-Müller tubes, which suffer from gas decomposition and are generally limited to a life of approximately 10-11 counting events.For example, if the inner surface of the ionization chamber is coated with a thin layer of boron, then (n, alpha) reaction can occur. When atoms or gas molecules between the electrodes are ionized by incident ionizing radiation, ion pairs are created and resulting positive ions move towards electrodes with opposite polarity under influence of electric field. There are two basic configurations; integral unit with camera and electronics in same housing and two-piece instrument that has separate ion chamber probe attached to electronics module by flexible cable.Operation as an ionization chamber involves use of applied voltage that is large enough to collect all of ion pairs (positive ion and electron removed) produced in gas by radioactive source but not large enough to cause any amplification of gas. Therefore, ionization chambers can be used to detect gamma radiation and x-rays collectively known as photons and for this windowless tube is used.For example high-pressure xenon ionization (HPXe) chambers are ideal for use in uncontrolled environments as response of detector has been proven to be consistent over wide temperature ranges (20 to 170 °C).
Ionization chamber is radiation detector that is used to detect and measure charge from number of ion pairs created within gas caused by incident radiation.Devices that are designed for short-term measurements use short-term electret and short-term camera that incorporates spring-loaded mechanism to expose electret to entire volume of chamber at time of placement. When gas between electrodes is ionized by incident ionizing radiation positive ions and electrons are created under influence of electric field.